How to Design a Battery of Physical Fitness Tests
The Physical Efficiency Battery is a fitness test consisting of five different components to measure the fitness level of the students. A score of 75 % or higher in all categories excluding the Body Composition receives a Fitness Certificate. A score of 90% or higher excluding the Body Composition receives a Distinguished Fitness Certificate. PHYSICAL FITNESS ABILITY TEST BATTERY The Criminal Justice Training Commission Fitness Ability Test Battery is comprised of four tests: 1. Meter Run 2. Sit-ups (1 minute) 3. Push-ups (maximum/no time limit) 4. Mile Run/Walk The scoring matrix, as described below, allows the examiner to find the participant’s raw and.
Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. The Physical Efficiency Battery is a fitness test consisting of five different components to measure the fitness level of the students.
The test consists of measuring body fat at three different sites with skinfold calipers. These are then entered into a computer program and percentage of body fat is calculated. The following sites are measured depending on the gender:. This test measures the student's ability to get up from the ground and sprint while changing directions. The student will lay on the floor in a prone position. They will then get up and sprint 30 feet and return. They will then negotiate 4 obstacles covering a 30 foot area and return through the obstacles.
The test concludes with another 30 foot sprint and return. The test is measured in the hundreds of seconds. This test measures the student's flexibility in the lower back, legs and shoulders. The student will sit on the floor in front of the measuring device. They will bend at the waist pushing a block down the device. The stretch must be a static stretch and the student's calves must remain in contact with the floor. The test is measured to the quarter inch.
This test measures the student's upper body strength for one repetition. The test is conducted on a single fulcrum bench for safety purposes.
The student is to press the weight straight up until they have locked out their arms. This test is measured in 5 pound increments. It is conducted on a quarter mile track. The student runs six laps. The test is measure in minutes and seconds.
Body Composition The test consists of measuring body fat at three different what countries make up south asia with skinfold calipers.
The following sites are measured depending on the gender: Males: Chest, Abdomen, and Thigh Females: Tricep, Hip, and Thigh Illinois Agility Run This test measures the student's ability to get up from the ground and sprint while changing directions. Sit and Reach This test measures the student's flexibility in the lower back, legs and shoulders.
Bench Press This test measures the student's upper body strength for one repetition. This test is measured in 5 pound increments 1.
Sample Physical Fitness Tests
May 05, · An athletic performance test battery is a series of valid and reliable physical tests that assess important physiological components which are necessary to meet the demands of the sport. PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST BATTERY 4 ONE MINUTE SIT-UP TEST Purpose This test measures the muscular endurance of the abdominal muscles. This is important for performing tasks that involve the use of force, and it helps maintain good posture and minimize lower back problems. Perform this test on a mat or carpeted surface. Equipment • MatFile Size: KB. Physical Fitness Test Battery Protocols and Guidelines 1) Police officers in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania need to be concerned about physical fitness and health. Physical fitness and health effects: A. Ability of police officers to perform essential functions of the job. B. The risk of an officer using excessive force in certain ledidatingstory.com Size: KB.
Metrics details. Evaluation of physical functioning is a key issue in clinical geriatrics and in aging research. In recent years, different physical performance batteries in which individuals are asked to perform several tasks and are evaluated using different criteria have been designed and used in elderly populations.
These batteries include different types of test which range from basic motor abilities to relevant everyday activities, depending on the construct area in the domain of physical function that must be measured. This paper reviews and classifies the main physical functioning batteries that can be found in the scientific field of aging research in order to provide knowledge on selection, administration, and interpretation of this indispensable assessment tools.
During the past three decades, physical clinicians and researchers have struggled to determine the most appropriate methods to assess the ability of elder individuals to maintain their independence in activities of daily living ADLs [ 6 ] in order to get an objective measure of their functional status.
Given that this level of autonomy relies on the effective combination of several physical capacities mainly endurance, strength, and flexibility and selected motor abilities such as balance, coordination, or agility [ 38 ], standardized methods for the assessment of physical performance and functional ability have been developed, and their reliability and validity have been demonstrated [ 12 ].
Moreover, in an attempt to enhance the ability to quantify the functional status of the elderly, direct physical performance measures defined as a series of tasks that the individual must perform in a standardized manner and are assessed using a priori criteria [ 16 ] have been developed and gathered under the structure of performance batteries. This paper reviews the most relevant performance batteries that have been specifically designed to assess the functional status of the elderly in order to provide knowledge on selection, administration, and interpretation of this indispensable assessment tools.
Functional fitness has been designed as having the physiologic capacity to perform normal everyday activities safely and independently without undue fatigue, so batteries must asses the physiologic attributes that support the behavioral functions necessary to perform activities of daily living [ 38 ].
Functional fitness is typically assessed using batteries that include a combination of health- and performance-related test Table 1 , including measurements of aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance, body weight and composition, flexibility, balance, and coordination [ 4 ] Table 2.
This battery, also known as Functional Fitness Assessment Battery [ 3 ], having been subjected to several reliability and validity examinations [ 4 ] and once established the pertinent normative parameters [ 30 ], has become one of the most popular batteries and one of the most useful databank tools. However, certain weak points have been detected, such as the absence of some lower body muscle function tests or the fact that some of the exercises flexibility and aerobic endurance may be difficult to perform for many elderly people, as well as the verification of a learning effect [ 40 ].
Besides, it is worth mentioning that the protocol in two of the exercises coordination and strength should undergo some modifications in order to improve its reproducibility [ 3 ]. Only the learning effect needs to be controlled, especially as far as the agility, flexibility, and coordination exercises are concerned. This fact makes of it a useful instrument to evaluate the underlying physical parameters associated with daily activities. This battery, known as SPPB or Nacional Institute on Aging NIA battery was derived from the adaptation of different functional tests created during the s with the objective of being administered by one single person, in any home, regardless of any spatial constraints.
The resulting battery was focused on assessing the lower extremity function and was able to classify a large number of elderly people across a broad spectrum of functional status, predicting mortality in an efficient way [ 17 ].
That may be the reason why this is one of the most widely used batteries in longitudinal studies seeking to evaluate elderly people whether they are sedentary [ 33 ] or affected by certain pathologies [ 22 ] or to assess the effects of training in these populations the physical exercise programmes [ 18 ]. The SPPB battery is characterized by the short period of time involved in its performance 10—15 min and by the fact that it predicts mobility disability and activities of daily living disability independently, mainly through the assessment of strength, balance, and gait speed.
Nevertheless, significant ceiling or floor effects on some of the items limit their ability to provide measurement data on a continuous scale across a wide range of ability levels [ 38 ]. Probably due to this fact, some researchers have included a 0 level performance level between 0 and 5 which refers to people who cannot perform the exercises, to those individuals who are not able to walk, or to those situations in which it is self-evident that there is a risk of injury if the candidates take the test [ 31 ].
Some other tests are generally added to this battery such as the ability to walk m or the 6-min walking test in order to make a more thorough assessment. The MacArthur Study of Successful Aging investigated factors that influence physical and cognitive functioning among relatively highly functional volunteers between the ages of 70 and 79, with the main objective of identifying the key factors that seem to contribute to healthy aging [ 36 ].
The measures included in the battery represent several major domains of physical performance, and the test used derives from previous studies.
Because of that, these measures have generally good reliability [ 41 ]. While the battery presents performance measures of functioning as true measures of physical health status in non-disabled old persons, it must be noted that some important domains, such as proximal upper extremity strength and shoulder range of motion, are not included, so further methodological work is needed in order to establish a more comprehensive battery [ 16 ].
The Groningen fitness test for the elderly GFE is a field-based motor fitness assessment designed to research the interrelationship between motor fitness, physical activity, health, and daily functioning [ 49 ]. This battery includes manual dexterity and reaction time tests, identified as important features of physical aptitude [ 13 ].
In addition, it is combined with a questionnaire to assess the subjective self-evaluation of health, and therefore, it has been used in longitudinal studies seeking to analyze the correlation between fitness level perceived through questionnaires and that proved in field tests [ 50 ]. The reliability, inter-rater, intra-rater, and internal consistency of the GFE has been demonstrated [ 23 ], which makes of it a very useful tool to measure basic motor abilities such as strength, endurance, and coordination.
In addition to this, it should be noted that the circumduction test lacks objectivity, that including a suitable warming up before the sit and reach test has been suggested, and that some previous practice before the block-transfer exercise would be advisable in order to avoid the learning effect.
Furthermore, the endurance exercise walking test may not be selective enough, given the fact that some people are able to finish it without reaching their maximum level of effort [ 23 ]. Lastly, it must be stressed that because this battery consists of simple exercises and it is easy to administer, it is used to assess the fitness level of sedentary populations and of people affected by different pathologies [ 25 ].
With the aim to develop a field test to assess various components of daily activities, the battery functional fitness was developed [ 28 ]. This battery consists of eight subtest components which try to reproduce daily activities, measuring the fitness level at the same time. This battery does not require special equipment, it is a low-cost battery easy to perform, and it does not involve too much time 50 people can be tested in 3 h.
However, it is only useful to assess independent individuals which is a limitation and large populations. It might not be a good choice if the purpose is to carry out clinical studies or pre—post over a short period of time. With the purpose of developing a series of tests to assess the key physiologic parameters that support functional mobility, the Fullerton fitness test FFT was created the [ 38 ], also known as Senior Fitness Test [ 11 ].
This battery focuses on the evaluation of those physical abilities which allow the functional independence of the elderly, and it includes the body mass index as well. Besides, if it is organized as a circuit, it is possible to evaluate up to 24 people in 90 min [ 19 ]. It is worth mentioning that in spite of the fact that the construct validity of the FFT has been confirmed, some kind of learning effect has been detected, and therefore, one or two previous practice sessions are advisable prior to the final assessment session [ 26 ].
Lastly, it must be taken into consideration that the FFT has been created and validated upon the score of voluntary elderly people, with ambulatory independence and generally active; consequently, the extrapolation of these scores should be done with caution. Because of that, the hold times on the standing balance items were increased to 30 s, and two additional balance tests were added. Besides, walking endurance is usually assessed by means of the m walk test [ 47 ].
Although this battery includes a large reference database to compare scores, it is important to point out that the selective criteria for joining the ABC study are being able to walk a quarter of a mile, climbing up ten steps, or performing basic daily life activities. Additionally, the fact that strength, mobility, and flexibility tests are not included leaves this battery somehow incomplete. In spite of this, the Health ABC battery has been described as a set of effective exercises to identify functional limitation in a discriminatory and concise way [ 2 ].
The extent to which an individual can live independently depends largely on his or her ability to perform daily functional tasks known as ADLs. The batteries reviewed in this section Table 3 include ADL tests focused on the ability to reproduce complex, real-life tasks rather than on specific physiologic abilities. Thus, these measures are closer to the concept of disability than are the tests of more basic abilities. To avoid repetition data, several classic batteries that assess ADLs are not mentioned here, since they have been fully reviewed elsewhere [ 14 ].
The physical performance and mobility examination PPME was developed to fill the need for a performance measure of physical functioning and mobility appropriate for hospitalized and frail elders [ 51 ]. Tasks were selected that could be safely and reliably administered at the bedside, office, or home by non-professionals after brief training.
The tests have been designed to screen 1 from gross level of function and to detect clinically relevant changes in mobility. The PPME has been proven to be reliable and valid when used with healthy older people especially with those who have suffered a hip fracture [ 44 ].
The battery physical performance test PPT was created with the idea of obtaining an objective quantifiable measure of functional capabilities. The PPT assesses multiple components of the physical function through the performance of different daily life activities of various degrees of difficulty [ 37 ].
This test has been confirmed as an independent predictor of death or institutionalization [ 35 ], and it is presented in several shortened versions nine, eight, or seven items which enable the completion of the test in less than 10 min. Furthermore, it is not unusual in studies seeking a more thorough physical and functional assessment to administer this battery in coordination with the SPPB, since they are also perfectly correlated [ 43 ].
The PPT seems to be an appropriate way of assessing those daily life activities involving strength, balance, and flexibility, although it has also been used successfully to evaluate the effects of training programs [ 20 ] or the level of autonomy of sick populations [ 32 ].
Besides, performing some of the tasks may be difficult for those people suffering from certain mobility problems, hence the need for more research in order to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. There are some batteries that include several tests to assess health-related fitness HRF as well as to measure functional performance FP.
In this context, HRF refers to the components of fitness cardiorespiratory, motor, musculoskeletal, morphologic, etc. FP, which is related to the components of HRF, refers to the ability to perform tasks for independent living and overall well-being. The comprehensive test batteries presented here Table 4 generally include motor skills coordination, kinesthetic differentiation, or sense of rhythm and some performance measures flexibility, strength or endurance, among others.
This battery, known as continuous scale physical functional performance CS-PFP , was created with the intention of producing a measuring tool which avoided the ceiling and floor effects and which identified the causes of poor physical functional performance. As a result, it was obtained an instrument which uses a continuous scale to quantify the physical function performance of the whole body as well as across several physical domains [ 7 ]. The fact that the battery is applicable to elderly people with different functional levels should be emphasized, although it was not designed to assess those individuals who need assistance in order to perform some of their daily tasks.
There are several versions of this battery worth mentioning. Thus, the flexibility is evaluated by a combination of a forward standing reach and sit and reach task putting a Velcro-closed strip across the shoe. The health-related functional test battery HR-FTB is a battery comprising several motor and musculoskeletal fitness tests which has been widely used in adults. Due to its success, it was decided to test its efficiency in assessing the level of fitness in people over 60, and as a result, a battery including six HRF tests and three FP tests was originated [ 24 ].
This battery has a great correlation with the perceived level of health, although two of the tests dynamic back extension and one-leg extension may cause safety problems. However, this battery was validated with people who do not show mobility problems, so more research should be done in order to determine the possible applicability of the HR-FTB to a wider range of elderly populations.
With the objective of creating an index to correlate chronological age with the level of functional decline, the instrumental activities of daily living IADL was designed, which consists of 17 tests related to instrumental daily life activities [ 44 ]. This battery can be completed in 40 min, and it only requires an examiner and minimum equipment.
Therefore, more studies confirming its reliability in different geographical contexts would be necessary. The WHAS battery consists of fitness exercises and other tests which assess the efficiency of the performance of certain daily life tasks; therefore, it has been pointed out as a very effective method to predict and calculate the risk of developing progressive disabilities [ 29 ].
Besides, a remarkable feature of the WHAS battery is that it can be safely performed in home setting [ 46 ]. Although the use of the battery in a longitudinal study has provided a significant amount of reference data, we have to bear in mind that the women who were selected to participate in WHAS had to show some kind of difficulty in performing certain tasks which assess the functional autonomy; consequently, this results are not applicable to healthy populations, nor to men, of course [ 42 ].
The batteries which have been designed to assess the healthy physical condition of the elderly and which are used nowadays in clinical relevant studies present some inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as some normative values which are clear enough and which enable a good replicability of the tests.
However, new applications of these batteries need to be carried out for the current level of health of elderly people to become clear. On the other hand, a better explanation of the performance protocols on which those batteries which asses daily life activities are based is necessary in order to facilitate their application in different contexts as well as the comparison of the obtained data.
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