What is a cross-sectional study? – Definition with examples
Oct 09, · A cross-sequential design is a research method that combines both a longitudinal design and a cross-sectional design. It aims to correct for some of the problems inherent in the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. In a cross-sequential design (also called an "accelerated longitudinal" or "convergence" design), a researcher wants to study development over some large period of time . Feb 27, · Cross sequential design (sometimes called a cross-sectional sequence) is a mix between cross sectional research and longitudinal research. The design begins as a cross sectional design; data is collected at one specific point in time on two or more groups.
Now you know about some tools used to conduct research about human development. Remember, research methods are tools that are used to collect information. But it is easy to confuse research methods and research design.
Research design is the strategy or blueprint for deciding how to collect and analyze information. Research design dictates which methods are used and how. Developmental research designs are techniques used particularly in lifespan development research. When we are trying to describe development and change, the research designs become especially important because we are interested in what changes and what stays the same with age.
These techniques try to examine how what is a cross sequential study, cohort, gender, and social class impact development. The majority of developmental studies use cross-sectional designs because they are less time-consuming and less expensive than other developmental designs. Cross-sectional research designs are used to examine behavior in participants of different ages who are tested at the same point in time.
They might have a hypothesis an educated guess, based on theory or observations that intelligence declines as people get older. The researchers might choose to give a certain intelligence test to individuals who are 20 years old, individuals who are 50 years old, and individuals who are 80 years old at the same time and compare the data from each age group.
Based on these data, the researchers might conclude that individuals become less intelligent as they get older. Would that be how to create a wet room in a bathroom valid accurate interpretation of the results?
No, that would not be a valid conclusion because the researchers did not follow individuals as they aged from 20 to 50 to 80 years old. One of the primary limitations of cross-sectional research is that the results yield information about age differences not necessarily changes with age or over time. That is, although the study described above can show that inthe year-olds scored lower on the intelligence test than the year-olds, and the year-olds scored lower on the intelligence test than the year-olds, the data used to come up with this conclusion were collected from different individuals or groups of individuals.
It could be, for instance, that when these year-olds get older 50 and eventually 80they will still score just as high on the intelligence test as they did at age It is also possible that the differences found between the age groups are not due to age, per se, but due to cohort how to write a tok essay ib. The year-olds in this research grew up during a particular time and experienced certain events as a group.
They were born in and are part of the Traditional or Silent Generation. The year-olds were born in and are members of the Baby Boomer cohort. The year-olds were born in and are part of the Millennial or Gen Y Generation. What kinds of things did each of these cohorts experience that the others did not experience or at least not in the same ways?
There may what are the most common problems in a relationship particular cohort differences that could especially influence their performance on intelligence tests, such as education level and use of computers. That is, many of those born in probably did not complete high school; those born in may have high school degrees, on average, but the majority did not attain college degrees; the young adults are probably current college students.
And this is not even considering additional factors such as gender, race, or socioeconomic status. The young adults are used to taking tests on computers, but the members of the other two cohorts did not grow up with computers and may not be as comfortable if the intelligence test is administered on computers.
These factors could have been a factor in the research results. Another disadvantage of cross-sectional research is that it is limited to one time of measurement. Just think about the mindsets of participants in research that was conducted in the United States right after the terrorist attacks on September 11, Figure 2. Longitudinal research studies the same person or group of people over an extended period of time.
Longitudinal research involves beginning with a group of people who may be of the same age and background cohort and measuring them repeatedly over a long period of time. One of the benefits of this type of research is that people can be followed through time and be compared with themselves when they were younger; therefore changes with age over time are measured.
What would be the advantages and disadvantages of longitudinal research? Problems with this type of research include being expensive, taking a long time, and subjects dropping out over time.
Think about the film, 63 Uppart of the Up Series mentioned earlier, which is an example of following individuals over time. In the videos, filmed every seven years, you see how people change physically, emotionally, and socially through time; and some remain the same in certain ways, too.
But many of the participants really disliked being part of the project and repeatedly threatened to quit; one disappeared for several years; another died before her 63rd year. Would you want to be interviewed every seven years? Would you want to have it made public for all to watch? Longitudinal research designs are used to examine behavior in the same individuals over time. For instance, with our example of studying what is a cross sequential study and aging, a researcher might conduct a longitudinal study to examine whether year-olds become less intelligent with age over time.
To this end, a researcher might give an intelligence test to individuals when they are 20 years old, again when they are 50 years old, and then again when they are 80 years old. This study is longitudinal in nature because the researcher plans to study the same individuals as they age. How can that be when cross-sectional research revealed declines in intelligence with age?
Since longitudinal research happens over a period of time which could be short term, as in months, but is often longer, as in yearsthere is a risk of attrition. Attrition occurs when participants fail to complete all portions of a study. Participants may move, change their phone numbers, die, or simply become disinterested in participating over time. Researchers should account for the possibility of attrition by enrolling a larger sample into their study initially, as some participants will likely drop out over time.
There is also something known as selective attrition— this means that certain groups of individuals may tend to drop out. It is often the least healthy, least educated, and lower socioeconomic participants who tend to drop out over time.
That means that the remaining participants may no longer be representative of the whole population, as they are, in general, healthier, better educated, and have more money. This could be a factor in why our hypothetical research found a more optimistic picture of intelligence and aging as the years went by. What can researchers do about selective attrition?
At each time of testing, they could randomly recruit more participants from the same cohort as the original members, to replace those who have dropped out. The results from longitudinal studies may also be impacted by repeated assessments.
Consider how well you would do on a math test if you were given the exact same exam every day for a week. Your performance would likely improve over time, not necessarily because you developed better math abilities, but because you were continuously practicing the same math problems. This phenomenon is known as a practice effect. Practice effects occur when participants become better at a task over time because they have done it again and again not due to natural psychological development.
So our participants may have become familiar with the intelligence test each time and with the computerized testing administration. Another limitation of longitudinal research is that the data are limited to only one cohort. As an example, think about how comfortable the participants in the cohort of year-olds are with computers.
Since only one cohort is being studied, there is no way to know if findings would be different from other cohorts. In addition, changes that are found as individuals age over time could be due to age or to time of measurement effects. That is, the participants are tested at different periods in history, so the variables of age and time of measurement could be confounded mixed up. For example, what if there is a major shift in workplace training and education between and and many of the participants experience a lot more formal education in adulthood, which positively impacts their intelligence scores in ?
Sequential research designs include elements of both longitudinal and cross-sectional research designs. Similar to longitudinal designs, sequential research features participants who are followed over time; similar to cross-sectional designs, sequential research includes participants of different ages. InK. Warner Schaie  a leading theorist and researcher on intelligence and agingdescribed particular sequential designs: cross-sequential, cohort sequential, and time-sequential. The differences between them depended on which variables were focused on for analyses of the data data could be viewed in terms of multiple cross-sectional designs or multiple longitudinal designs or multiple cohort designs.
Ideally, by comparing results from the different types of analyses, the effects of age, cohort, and time in history could be separated out. Consider, once again, our example of intelligence and aging. In a study with a sequential design, a researcher might recruit three separate groups of participants Groups A, B, and C. Group A would be recruited when they are 20 years old in and would be tested again when they are 50 and 80 years old in andrespectively similar in design to the longitudinal study described previously.
Group B would be recruited when they are 20 years old in and would be tested again when they are 50 years old in Group C would be recruited when they are 20 years old in and so on. This research design also allows for the examination of cohort and time of measurement effects. For example, the researcher could examine the intelligence scores of year-olds in different times in history and different cohorts follow the yellow diagonal lines in figure 3.
This might be examined by researchers who are interested in sociocultural and historical changes because we know that lifespan development is multidisciplinary. One way of looking at the what is a cross sequential study of the various developmental research designs was described by Schaie and Baltes  : cross-sectional and longitudinal designs might reveal change patterns while sequential designs might identify developmental origins for the observed change patterns.
Since they include elements of longitudinal and cross-sectional designs, sequential research has many of the same strengths and limitations as these what is mustahab in islam approaches.
For example, sequential work may require less time and effort than longitudinal research if data are collected more frequently than over the year spans in our example but more time and effort than cross-sectional research. Although practice effects may be an issue if participants are asked to complete the same tasks or assessments over time, attrition may be less problematic than what is commonly experienced in longitudinal research since participants may not have to remain involved in the study for such a long period of time.
When considering the best research design to use in their research, scientists think about their main research question and the best way to come up with an answer. A table of what is an mvr background check and disadvantages for each of the described research designs is provided here to help you as you consider what sorts of studies would be best conducted using each of these different approaches.
Improve this page Learn More. Skip to main content. Module 1: Lifespan Development. Search for:. Developmental Research Designs Learning Outcomes Compare advantages and disadvantages of developmental research designs cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential. Figure 1. Example of cross-sectional research design. Figure 3. Example of a longitudinal research how to save docs on ipad. Figure what is a cross sequential study.
May 08, · A cross-sectional study is a cheap and easy way to gather initial data and identify correlations that can then be investigated further in a longitudinal study. Cross-sectional vs longitudinal example. You want to study the impact that a low-carb diet has on diabetes. You first conduct a cross-sectional study with a sample of diabetes patients to see if there are differences in health . May 31, · Definition: A cross-sectional study is defined as a type of observational research that analyzes data of variables collected at one given point in time across a sample population or a pre-defined subset. This study type is also known as cross-sectional analysis, transverse study, or prevalence study. Although cross-sectional research does not involve conducting experiments, . The cross-sequential (or cohort-sequential) approach is also referred to as short-term longitudinal research (Anderson, ). It approximates a true longitudinal study by performing several short-term longitudinal studies of participant groups that represent different phases of usage.
A cross-sequential design is a research method that combines both a longitudinal design and a cross-sectional design. It aims to correct for some of the problems inherent in the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.
In a cross-sequential design also called an "accelerated longitudinal" or "convergence" design, a researcher wants to study development over some large period of time within the lifespan.
Rather than studying particular individuals across that whole period of time e. An example of a cross-sequential design is shown in the table below. In this table, over a span of 10 years, from to , 7 overlapping cohorts with different starting ages could be studied to provide information on the whole span of development from ages 20 to This design has been used in studies to investigate career trajectories in academia and other phenomena.
Facebook Twitter. Study of epistemological progression from preservice to in service teachers study, we used a cross sequential method, combining both. Normally a series of cross sectional studies comprise the columns of the table. Impact of Londons low emission zone on air quality and childrens. Making of epistemologically sophisticated physics teachers: A cross sequential study of epistemological progression from preservice to in service teachers.
This chapter summarizes the findings of the sequential study of personality traits and attitudes, with particular emphasis on the directly observed trait of social. A cross sequential study of age changes in personality in an aged. Adolescent Purpose Development Stanford University. Method that combines both a longitudinal design and a. Similar to longitudinal designs, sequential research.
Depression in later life: cross sequential patterns and NCBI. Longer term gains in retention or cost savings from mode changes, regardless of concurrent cross sectional changes based on study design,. A cross sequential study of age changes in cognitive behavior. Cross sectional research designs have three distinctive features: no Using a quantitative framework, a sequential study generally utilizes.
Cross sequential studies combine both longitudinal and cross sectional methods in an attempt to both shorten the length of the research and minimize. Cohort sequential longitudinal studies of personality and. Developmental Research Designs Lifespan Development. A sequential study is one of many ways to construct research studies. Planning a longitudinal study: II. Frequency of measurement and. The cross sectional design com should have more opportunities to use Thus, the design for this study involved advocated the use of sequential designs.
Perceptual and Cognitive Mechanisms of Developing Fractions. Now you know about some tools. Research on the relationship between age and depression has not yielded a consistent picture. Approaches emphasizing resilience compete with.
Developmental Psychology Chapter 1 Page The purpose of this entry is to clarify the rela tionship between the results of cross sectional and longitudinal studies of the age variable and to delineate some. Trends in working conditions and health across three cohorts of. Warner Schaie.
Charles R. University of Nebraska. University of. Cross sequential designs combine cross sectional and longitudinal. We propose a novel cross sequential approach to accelerating the collection of user feedback while providing a broad perspective by analyzing. Determinants of adolescent identity development: a cross sequential. Cross sequential design sometimes called a cross sectional sequence is a mix between cross sectional research and longitudinal research.
Sectional and longitudinal designs. Give an example of Longitudinal design, Cross sectional design and cross sequential How these design will be utilised to study the effects the amount of time. A cross sequential design is a research method that combines both a longitudinal design and a cross sectional design. It aims to correct for some of the problems inherent in the cross sectional and longitudinal designs.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. We did a sequential annual cross sectional study of children aged 8—9 years attending primary schools between —10 and — Cross sequential study pedia. Oscar Croxatto. Previous research has shown that cross sectional designs are prone to biased estimates of longitudinal mediation parameters. The sequential design has. A mixed model was used to analyze the cross sequential data that include An earlier study, a 30 year longitudinal study on aging and SCI.
On Sequential Strategies in Developmental Research. From pedia, the free encyclopedia. Changes in dietary intake during a 6 year follow up of an Nature. Box 5. Comparisons of Cross Sectional and Longitudinal Methods Cross sequential designs combine cross sectional and longitudinal designs.
By using a series of longitudinal studies sequences and several cross sectional. Depression in later life: cross sequential patterns and. This study has a cross sequential design. A cross sequential study of epistemological progression PhysTEC. Cross sequential study. Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically.
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Making of epistemologically sophisticated physics teachers: A cross.