Sep 29, · Interpersonal communication is the process of exchanging messages between people whose lives mutually influence one another in unique ways in relation to social and cultural norms. Dec 23, · Elements of Interpersonal Communication. It has been explained that communication is a process. The participants and elements of that process include the following: sender, receiver, message, channel, feedback, environment and noise. The sender is the source, or originator, of the interpersonal communication.
It often includes face-to-face exchange of messages, which may take form of a certain tone of voice, facial expressions, body language and gestures. Commonly used interpersonal communication within a business organization include water cooler talks, client meetings, employee performance reviews and project discussions. Although no communication may be intended, non-verbal methods such as posture and facial expression relay messages from one person to another.
Interpersonal my dog had puppies now what is largely dyadic in nature occurring between two people but is often extended to a small group such as family. Interpersonal communication is the communication where two or more people are connected in some way. It would include the exchange between a teacher and their students, a married couple, a boss and an intern and so on.
The people involved in the communication are interdependent, meaning the action of one person has effects on the other person. Interpersonal communication is relational in nature; it takes place in a relationship and the what are the elements of interpersonal communication we communicate depends on the kind of relationship we have with the other person. The kind of communication can range from relatively impersonal to highly personal. Source refers to the party that formulates and sends messages while receiver receives and understands messages.
The term source-receiver emphasizes the dual role of a person as a source and receiver. For interpersonal communication to exist, what are the 3 levels of listening must be sent and received. In face-to-face communication, verbal and non-verbal messages are exchanged through speech, facial expressions, body movements and gestures.
In online communication, messages are communicated with words, emoticons, photos, videos and audios. Feedback conveys information about the messages sent. In face-to-face communication, nods of agreement, smiles, puzzled looks, confusion etc are feedback and can be monitored as we are speaking.
In online communication, feedback is delayed. Channel refers to the medium between source and receiver through which messages pass. Messages are transferred through multiple channels. For example, in face-to-face communication, messages are conveyed through voice as well as gestures.
Noise refers to any interference faced while receiving a message. It can be physical, physiological, psychological or semantic. Noise cannot be eliminated completely but it can be reduced. Every communication takes place within a context. Context refers to an environment that influences the forms and content of communication.
Verbal communication includes the exchange done with spoken words. This includes what we say and how. The latter is also known as para-verbal communication. Our action speaks volume and is a key aspect in communication.
Even when we are silent, we are communicating a message. When it comes to online non-verbal conversation, interpersonal communication may be asynchronous or synchronous. Example : The sender sends an email. The receiver may receive it a week later and take even longer to reply. Synchronous communication happens when the receiver responds as soon as they receive the message from the sender. They interact in real time.
Example : Facetime, Facebook messaging. What are other people reading?
Non-verbal Communication in Different Cultures
Feb 10, · Elements of Interpersonal Communication. Interpersonal communication can also be divided into subskills. Effective communication in the workplace relies on each of the following elements: Problem solving and decision making: One of the best ways to maintain professional relationships is through effective problem solving and decision making. Interpersonal Communication came to being when men began to exchange ideas and thoughts to one another. Interpersonal Communication is a kind of communication in which people communicate their feeling, ideas, emotions and information face to face to . Apr 18, · Elements of interpersonal communication Source-Receiver. Source refers to the party that formulates and sends messages while receiver receives and understands messages. The term source-receiver emphasizes the dual role of a person as a source and receiver. Messages. For interpersonal communication to exist, messages must be sent and received.
In order to understand interpersonal communication, we must understand how interpersonal communication functions to meet our needs and goals and how our interpersonal communication connects to larger social and cultural systems. Interpersonal communication is the process of exchanging messages between people whose lives mutually influence one another in unique ways in relation to social and cultural norms. This definition highlights the fact that interpersonal communication involves two or more people who are interdependent to some degree and who build a unique bond based on the larger social and cultural contexts to which they belong.
Obviously, if the clerk were a friend, family member, coworker, or romantic partner, the communication would fall into the interpersonal category. In this section, we discuss the importance of studying interpersonal communication and explore its functional and cultural aspects. Interpersonal communication has many implications for us in the real world. Did you know that interpersonal communication played an important role in human evolution?
Early humans who lived in groups, rather than alone, were more likely to survive, which meant that those with the capability to develop interpersonal bonds were more likely to pass these traits on to the next generation Leary, Did you know that interpersonal skills have a measurable impact on psychological and physical health? People with higher levels of interpersonal communication skills are better able to adapt to stress, have greater satisfaction in relationships and more friends, and have less depression and anxiety Hargie, Have you ever heard of the boy or girl who was raised by wolves?
There have been documented cases of abandoned or neglected children, sometimes referred to as feral children, who survived using their animalistic instincts but suffered psychological and physical trauma as a result of their isolation Candland, There are also examples of solitary confinement, which has become an ethical issue in many countries. Solitary confinement is common in supermax prisons, where prisoners spend Aside from making your relationships and health better, interpersonal communication skills are highly sought after by potential employers, consistently ranking in the top ten in national surveys National Association of Colleges and Employers, Each of these examples illustrates how interpersonal communication meets our basic needs as humans for security in our social bonds, health, and careers.
So in order to make the most out of our interpersonal relationships, we must learn some basic principles. Think about a time when a short communication exchange affected a relationship almost immediately. Did you mean for it to happen? Many times we engage in interpersonal communication to fulfill certain goals we may have, but sometimes we are more successful than others.
This is because interpersonal communication is strategic, meaning we intentionally create messages to achieve certain goals that help us function in society and our relationships.
Goals vary based on the situation and the communicators, but ask yourself if you are generally successful at achieving the goals with which you enter a conversation or not. If so, you may already possess a high degree of interpersonal communication competence , or the ability to communicate effectively and appropriately in personal relationships.
This chapter will help you understand some key processes that can make us more effective and appropriate communicators. Imagine that you are the manager of a small department of employees at a marketing agency where you often have to work on deadlines.
You meet the deadline and have effectively accomplished your goal. Although your strategy was effective, many people do not respond well to strict hierarchy or micromanaging and may have deemed your communication inappropriate. A more competent communicator could have implemented the same detailed plan to accomplish the task in a manner that included feedback, making the employees feel more included and heard.
In order to be competent interpersonal communicators, we must learn to balance being effective and appropriate. We have different needs that are met through our various relationships. What motivates you to communicate with someone? Our instrumental goals can be long term or day to day.
The following are examples of communicating for instrumental goals:. When we communicate to achieve relational goals, we are striving to maintain a positive relationship. Engaging in relationship-maintenance communication is like taking your car to be serviced at the repair shop.
To have a good relationship, just as to have a long-lasting car, we should engage in routine maintenance. For example, have you ever wanted to stay in and order a pizza and watch a movie, but your friend suggests that you go to a local restaurant and then to the theatre? It is likely that your friend has made or will also make similar concessions to put your needs first, which indicates that there is a satisfactory and complimentary relationship.
Obviously, if one partner always insists on having his or her way or always concedes, becoming the martyr, the individuals are not exhibiting interpersonal-communication competence. Other routine relational tasks include celebrating special occasions or honoring accomplishments, spending time together, and checking in regularly by phone, e-mail, text, social media, or face-to-face communication.
The following are examples of communicating for relational goals:. In the early stages of a romantic relationship, you may have a DTR talk to reduce uncertainty about where you stand by deciding to use the term boyfriend , girlfriend , or partner. The talk may continue on from there, and you may talk about what to call your relationship, set boundaries, or not.
It is not unusual to have several DTR talks as a relationship progresses. We also pursue self-presentation goals by adapting our communication in order to be perceived in particular ways. Just as many companies, celebrities, and politicians create a public image, we desire to present different faces in different contexts.
The well-known scholar Erving Goffman compared self-presentation to a performance and suggested we all perform different roles in different contexts Goffman, Indeed, competent communicators can successfully manage how others perceive them by adapting to situations and contexts. A parent may perform the role of stern head of household, supportive shoulder to cry on, or hip and culturally aware friend to his or her child. A newly hired employee may initially perform the role of serious and agreeable coworker.
For example, Haley, the oldest daughter in the television show Modern Family , often presents herself as incapable in order to get her parents to do her work. Here are some other examples of communicating to meet self-presentation goals:. Then consider the following questions:.
In some situations we may privilege instrumental goals over relational or self-presentation goals. For example, if your partner is offered a great job in another state and you decided to go with him or her, which will move you away from your job and social circle, you would be focusing on relational goals over instrumental or self-presentation goals.
Of course, if the person really is your best friend, you can try to smooth things over or make up for your shortness later. The functional perspective of interpersonal communication indicates that we communicate to achieve certain goals in our relationships. We get things done in our relationships by communicating for instrumental goals. We maintain positive relationships through relational goals.
We also strategically present ourselves in order to be perceived in particular ways. As our goals are met and our relationships build, they become little worlds we inhabit with our relational partners, complete with their own relationship cultures. Aside from functional aspects of interpersonal communication, communicating in relationships also helps establish relationship cultures. Just as large groups of people create cultures through shared symbols language , values, and rituals, people in relationships also create cultures at a smaller level.
Relationship cultures are the climates established through interpersonal communication that are unique to the relational partners but based on larger cultural and social norms. We also enter into new relationships with expectations based on the schemata we have developed in previous relationships and learned from our larger society and culture.
Think of relationship schemata as blueprints or plans that show the inner workings of a relationship. Just like a schematic or diagram for assembling a new computer desk helps you put it together, relationship schemata guide us in how we believe our interpersonal relationships should work and how to create them.
Even though we experience our relationships as unique, they are at least partially built on preexisting cultural norms. Some additional communicative acts that create our relational cultures include relational storytelling, personal idioms, routines and rituals, and rules and norms. Storytelling is an important part of how we create culture in larger contexts and how we create a uniting and meaningful storyline for our relationships.
In fact, an anthropologist coined the term homo narrans to describe the unique storytelling capability of modern humans Fisher, We often rely on relationship storytelling to create a sense of stability in the face of change, test the compatibility of potential new relational partners, or create or maintain solidarity in established relationships.
Think of how you use storytelling among your friends, family, coworkers, and other relational partners. If you recently moved to a new place for college, you probably experienced some big changes. One of the first things you started to do was reestablish a social network—remember, human beings are fundamentally social creatures. As you began to encounter new people in your classes, at your new job, or in your new housing, you most likely told some stories of your life before—about your friends, job, or teachers back home.
One of the functions of this type of storytelling, early in forming interpersonal bonds, is a test to see if the people you are meeting have similar stories or can relate to your previous relationship cultures. In short, you are testing the compatibility of your schemata with the new people you encounter.
Although storytelling will continue to play a part in your relational development with these new people, you may be surprised at how quickly you start telling stories with your new friends about things that have happened since you met.
You may recount stories about your first trip to the dance club together, the weird geology professor you had together, or the time you all got sick from eating the cafeteria food. Storytelling within relationships helps create solidarity, or a sense of belonging and closeness. For example, research on a gay male friendship circle found that the gay men retold certain dramatic stories frequently to create a sense of belonging and to also bring in new members to the group Jones Jr.
This is also true of idioms we create in our interpersonal relationships. Just as idioms are unique to individual cultures and languages, personal idioms are unique to certain relationships, and they create a sense of belonging due to the inside meaning shared by the relational partners.
In romantic relationships, for example, it is common for individuals to create nicknames for each other that may not directly translate for someone who overhears them. The recent cultural phenomenon Jersey Shore on MTV has given us plenty of examples of personal idioms created by the friends on the show. Idioms help create cohesiveness, or solidarity in relationships, because they are shared cues between cultural insiders.
They also communicate the uniqueness of the relationship and create boundaries, since meaning is only shared within the relationship. Some communicative routines may develop around occasions or conversational topics. When I studied abroad in Sweden, my parents and I talked on the phone at the same time every Sunday, which established a comfortable routine for us.
Other routines develop around entire conversational episodes. Relationship rituals take on more symbolic meaning than do relationship routines and may be variations on widely recognized events—such as birthdays, anniversaries, Passover, Christmas, or Thanksgiving—or highly individualized and original. Relational partners may personalize their traditions by eating mussels and playing Yahtzee on Christmas Eve or going hiking on their anniversary.
The following highly idiosyncratic ritual was reported by a participant in a research study:. It originated when I noticed some blanket fuzz in his belly button one day and thought it was funny…We both found it funny and teased often about the fuzz. A couple may share a relationship routine of making dinner together every Saturday night. Free Stock Photos — Cooking — public domain. Whether the routines and rituals involve phone calls, eating certain foods, or digging for belly button fuzz, they all serve important roles in building relational cultures.
However, as with storytelling, rituals and routines can be negative.